React monorepo

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React monorepo

In this blog post I am focussing on the interoperability of alls apps built by React, and how the state, some basic behaviors, actions, user interfaces and some experiences can be arranged in order for it to be more modular. While a backend project is usually divided into more than one NPM package, a cross platform app is suggested to be a monorepo. The closer the code, the faster to write the code; they say, instead of having a git repository for each module which is considered a best practice when thinking in micro-services, it scales better to maintain your frontend code in a single repository.

To join all dependencies for all platforms within a single React app tends to make things faster in small projects but harder to maintain in big ones.

When looking into the existing boilerplates for react-native-web, all of them are focused on the idea of sharing the package. I found it is tempting to fall into that idea because of the following:. The bad parts of not splitting the platform when it comes to the degree of modularity, the scalability and the maintainability of each platform:.

Nx - Extensible Dev Tools for Monorepos (React Apps)

In an ideal world, the platform should be plugged into the code, not the code plugged into the platform. From that statement some questions may arise such as of how should I orchestrate my app if I want it to run it in expo, a new version of react-native on iOS and on an stable one in Android?

Or what if I want to have an stable version of any given package like maps, in production environment, and an alpha version of the same package using expo? Or what if I want to evaluate the performance when running it using haul vs using the metro bundler? As of today when we talk about platform we mean ios, android, windows and web, but sketch, VR and videogames can be thought as a platform as well as in the future it could be the Web GL or an autonomous car.

Having a web-mobile project in a lerna-style monorepo could be a great choice when you aim to share JS logic in your app.

In addition to improving it architecturally, allow semantic releases, and symlinking your components, your app will scale much better on the long term. For doing that you should have a module per platform, and consume shared modules using native iOS android and web file extensions as needed.

You can have peerDependencies on those ones so that each platform can define their specific version, but that should be handled carefully to avoid incompatibilities.

I created this minimum boilerplate that has configured a react-native app packaged with haul sharing somes libraries with the web environment using react-native-web to have it as a usefull working example. This great new project aims to solve out by the cli the way the code is shared between React web apps, React Native apps, and standalone libraries.

Sign in. Become a contributor hellojs. A cross platform app with React in a monorepo.

react monorepo

I found it is tempting to fall into that idea because of the following: package. The platform should be a plugin In an ideal world, the platform should be plugged into the code, not the code plugged into the platform. Lerna to the rescue Having a web-mobile project in a lerna-style monorepo could be a great choice when you aim to share JS logic in your app.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. So we are building a monorepo for components that will be consumed via a seperate react-app later on. So we started using styled-components and have a question regarding the themeing of the isolated components. What is best practice?

Appreciate some opinions on what's best-practice. Thanks community! Learn more. Asked 5 days ago. Active 4 days ago. Viewed 11 times. Joelgullander Joelgullander 1, 1 1 gold badge 7 7 silver badges 22 22 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. The Overflow How many jobs can be done at home?

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Setting up a monorepo with Lerna for a TypeScript project

Triage needs to be fixed urgently, and users need to be notified upon….September 28, 4 min read It is often quite useful to use a single repository for maintaining an entire project with all of the packages in it. There is a rumor that Google and Facebook use a single repository for all of their projects.

This solution can be quite handy when a company uses a similar technology and when projects share common dependencies and files. In fact, some of them use Lerna for it. Lerna is a popular and widely used package written in JavaScript for setting and managing multi-package and multi-project single repository for Node.

Fixed mode keeps all versions of packages at the same level. This approach is quite popular these days. You may have seen it in Angular. Maintaining all custom packages in a single repository sounds tempting and, as a matter of fact, it is quite easy with Lerna. As Lerna is intended to work with JavaScript and not TypeScriptwe will have to adjust the initial configuration for this project. You will need to create an account there: www. Our packages are going to be public, and for the sake of this project, we will create a Github repository.

We will use TypeScript in our project so we can treat it as a shared dependency. Which means we should add it on top level package.

This is a recommended approach, as we want to use the same tooling across our packages.

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Alongside TypeScript we will install type declarations for Node. As we mentioned before, Lerna is intended to be used with Node. We will need to add additional configuration to make that work with TypeScript. As this is a demo project, we will assume that we will have a few modules: patientdoctor and scheduler. To create packages we are going to use the lerna create terminal command from the root of our project.

The lerna create doctor command will guide us through the creation of a new package. The name of the package is important. We will repeat the same process for packages patient and scheduler. As we are using TypeScript for all packages, we will have one common tsconfig. Our tsconfig.The folder structure and module management of an application can become very complex and cumbersome as the application grows. This growth can quickly become difficult to track. A good way to structure the app is to write it in a per-feature basis, where each feature lives on its own place.

A common and simple pattern is to split the application in different folders, but this can be taken further by creating different packages, that can be shared among different applications where each package represents a particular feature, component or functionality.

This multi-package structure is already in practice by different organizations and is known as Monorepo. There are some tools that help managing this architecture like LernaBazel from GoogleBuck from Facebooketc. Splitting up large codebases into separate independently versioned packages is extremely useful for code sharing.

However, making changes across many repositories is messy and difficult to track, and testing across repositories gets complicated really fast. Here is where a variety of tools can help. To address these and other problems related with management, scalability, and refactoring, some projects like BabelReactetc.

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Although at first glance this approach looks like monolithic software development — which has a deserved bad reputation, the Monorepo idea is not incompatible with modular software development practices.

Managing code in one single repository can simplify the development of modular software in a big way. In general, Monorepo is a single repository holding the code of multiple projects which may or may not be related. The projects inside a Monorepo can be dependents on each other like Reactthat is a set of packages that share functionality with each other, like: react, react-dom, react-reconcilier, etc or can be completely isolated like Google search and Angular. Consider an application, similar to a content management system, where each user can see some data that belongs to himself.

The app is divided into 4 pages or views that show different data, but that can be related between each other. The first view shows a progress tracker for a set of tasks and a list of tasks to do. If the user selects a task from the list, the app renders or redirects to the second view to show the description of the task.

Here each big feature in this case the principal views of the application is represented as a package that has its own logic and dependencies, including its own tests this can be unit tests or even e2e tests. This allows developers to focus only on one thing to develop and enables them to test their own work even if this package belongs to a huge Monorepo.

Also, this multi-package setup allows easy management of the inter-dependencies of packages, avoiding the use of. The maintenance work of a Monorepo can be done with different tools. Some of them, like Lerna or Builder, are focused mostly in the task of publishing your package to npm to make them available to other developers.Setting up a basic full-stack JavaScript application is not that hard by itself, but becomes complicated and tedious as you throw in more requirements, such as performing linting and testing before allowing commits.

Enforcing strict coding conventions tends to annoy them at first, but since we do it at an early stage of their training, it quickly becomes natural for them to follow good practices. Among other things, it allows you to run npm scripts in all the packages with a single command, for tasks such as:. You can review this first commit here. You need to install it first: npm i -g create-react-app.

We have to remove the imports from index. After that, we can lint our frontend app by simply running yarn lint. Find thie commit here.

react monorepo

The doc explicitly advises not to use it in production, but the other Babel tools will allow us to generate a build suitable for production use. Then add a start script to package.

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Now we can start our server using yarn start. We could name it dist instead, but I like being consistent with what the CRA build system does. It works! We can reference this command as a build script in package. Then specify jest as the test script in package. The new app. The modified index. We check that yarn start and yarn build still function, then try yarn test. We actually have to rename. This solves the problem.

Which brings us back to the second point. In order to automatically modify code in the test, Jest uses Prettierwhich ensures consistent formatting. Fixing that is as easy as creating a Prettier config file. This time the formatting is consistent with our coding style. Running yarn lint for the first time, we get a few errors. We need to:. As a result, we only have the no-console left, which will be good enough for now we could setup a proper logger later.When I talk to friends and relatives about what I do at Etsy, I have to come up with an analogy about what Frontend Infrastructure is.

react monorepo

The analogy that I usually fall to is that of a restaurant: the meal is a fully formed web page, the chefs are product engineers, and the kitchen is the infrastructure. A good kitchen should make it easy to cook a bunch of different meals quickly and deliciously. Recently, my team and I spent over a year swapping out our home-grown, Require-js-based JavaScript build system for Webpack. Running with this analogy a bit, this project is like trading out our kitchen without customers noticing, and without bothering the chefs too much.

Large projects tend to be full of unique problems and unexpected hurdles, and this one was no exception. This post is the second in a short series on all the things that we learned during the migration, and is adapted in part from a talk I gave at JSConf The first post can be found here. At Etsy, we have a whole lot of JavaScript. When we deploy our web code, we need to build and deploy over different JavaScript assets made up from over twelve thousand different JavaScript files or modules.

When starting to adopt Webpack, one of the first places we saw an early win was in our development experience. Up to and until this point, our engineers had been using a development server that we had written in-house.

Developing in a Monorepo While Still Using Webpack

We ran a copy of it on every developer machine, where it built files as they were requested. This approach meant that you could reliably navigate around Etsy. It also meant that we could start and restart an instance of the development server without worrying about losing state or interrupting developers much. Conceptually, this made things very simple to maintain. In practice, however, developers were asking for more from JavaScript and from their build systems.

We started adopting React a few years prior using the then-available JSXTransform tool, which we added to our build system with a fair amount of wailing and gnashing of teeth. The result was a server that successfully, yet sluggishly, supported JSX.

Building some of our weightier JavaScript code often took the better part of a minute, and most of our developers grew increasingly frustrated with the long iteration cycles it produced.

Creating a New Workspace

Clearly, there was a lot with our development environment that could be improved. To be worth the effort of adopting, any new build system we adopted would at least have to support the ability to transpile syntaxes like JSX, while still allowing for fast rebuild times for developers.

Webpack seemed like a pretty safe bet — it was widely adopted ; it was actively developed and funded ; and everyone who had experience with it seemed to like it in spite of its intimidating configuration. So, we spent a good bit of time configuring Webpack to work with our codebase and vice versa. This involved writing some custom loaders for things like templates and translations, and it meant updating some of the older parts of our codebase that relied on the specifics of Require.

After a lot of planning, testing, and editing, we were able to get Webpack to fully build our entire codebase. Clearly, we had a lot more work on our plates.

When Webpack typically runs in development mode, it behaves much differently than our old development server did.

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This keeps it from starting from scratch every time an asset updates, and watching the filesystem lets builds start a few seconds before the assets are requested by the browser. Our monorepo contains JavaScript code from every part of Etsy. We ended up admitting to ourselves that building everything at once was impossible. A pretty straightforward next step would be to split up our codebase into logical regions and make a webpack config for each one, rather than using one big config to build everything.

Splitting things up would allow each individual build to be reasonably sized, cutting back on both build times and resource utilization. There are a lot of features in Etsy that touch multiple parts of the site; adding a change to how a listing might appear could mean a change for our search page, the seller dashboard, and our internal tools as well.

If you happen to be using that, Kevin will probably feel a bit familiar.Monorepos allow you to have multiple projects share common dependencies instead of installing the dependencies for each of them. They also simplify sharing code between your projects, allowing you to import code from one package to another.

As an example, you might want to have a monorepo containing a website, a mobile application, and some shared code that you wrote. Please note that this article was written while targetting React Native 0.

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Following the yarn docs, if migrating from existing apps or creating a new project, add all your apps to a packages folder inside your monorepo, and run yarn init at the root.

Edit your package. You can either be specific or use globs. Optional step: Move all your config prettier, eslint and others to the top-level packages. This enforces the same coding style across your whole codebase, neat!

react monorepo

Think of the workspaces resolution algorithm as the way to save to most space possible on your project. This allows installing dependencies only once even if they are used in multiple projects. Then it has to deal with version conflicts, the best way to save space is to share the versions that have the biggest number of packages needing it. You can enforce this via yarn resolutions.

This means that you should try to keep the same versions across your packages if you want to save space and workspace complexity for yarn because bumping some dependency might move many modules in the workspace.

React Native has greatly simplified the use of monorepos recently thanks to Mike Grabowskiand many others helping with the new CLI, but there are still a few quirks we need to take care of.

But know that we are committed to making this as seamless as possible! As a first step, we need to update paths to React Native and the cli if it has moved from your packages to the top of your monorepo because we use it in many native files, including Podfileproject.

Our main issue here is that we would need to update the path every time it moves around in the monorepo. There is another way than no-hoist to force a dependency to be somewhere. Now that we know where React Native will be, we can update all the files referencing it. Then you need to edit your project. I used XCode to edit it but use the tool you prefer. Once you updated everything, do not forget to run pod install.

Since the V3 of React Native CLI, it will use Node resolution algorithm meaning that it will correctly find native dependencies even if they are hoisted. Congrats you are done! So now Metro is able to find all of our code! If you have multiple versions of React Native installed in your workspace, you want to exclude those of the haste module resolution.

My workaround here is to use these few extra lines inside my metro config. What they do is exclude any react-native folder except for the one we need. Another issue for android is that assets resolutions will not work unless you use another workaround. If you plan on having shared assets jpg, png, etc…you need to add yet another few lines of dark magic.


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